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Methodologies for Development

Introduction
Design Methodology
Logical User-Centered Interaction Design Methodology(L.U.C.I.D)
Measuring Usability of Systems in Context (MUSiC)
Participatory Design (PD)
Contextual Design
Performance Centered Design (PCD)
Usability Engineering Process
The Scenario-Based Engineering Process (SEP)
Discount Usability Engineering
Usability Methods
Credits
Introduction
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Many software development projects fail to create effective user interfaces on time and within budget. General Software-engineering development methodologies have helped developers meet budgets and schedules, but they have not always provided guidance to good user interface designs. Both academics and commercial firms that specialized in user-centered design have spent tremendous effort in developing design methodologies for usability engineering.  Following is a list of useful resources provided on the internet.

Logical User-Centered Interaction Design Methodology(L.U.C.I.D)
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L.U.C.I.D Cognetics Corporation, Inc

This web site contains a description of the L.U.C.I.D software design methodology, developed by Congnetics, Corporation.  Lucid Software Design is a methodology for user-centered software design. Lucid is an acronym for Logical User-Centered Interactive Design. As the word "lucid" suggests, a central component of Lucid Design is ease-of-understanding and ease-of-use. Lucid design is focused on the "front-end" of software: assessing user requirements and developing a look, feel and navigational flow which supports the functional requirements of the system. Lucid design is less concerned with technical architecture for which several well-tested methodologies already exist.
 
Measuring Usability of Systems in Context (MUSiC)
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Measuring Usability of Systems in Context (MUSiC) Serco Usability Services, Inc

This web site contains a description of the methods developed during the MUSiC project for measuring usability.  The European MUSiC (Measuring Usability of Systems in Context) project developed methods for measuring usability based on this definition. A major benefit of using MUSiC methods for usability measurement is that they provide a means of specifying usability goals and evaluating whether they have been achieved. The goals are expressed in terms of the purpose of business systems which is to enable users to achieve tasks effectively, efficiently and with satisfaction.
 
Participatory Design (PD)
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Report:Joint Application Development (JAD) and Participatory Design (PD) University of Calgary, Univ.

This report compares Joint Application Development (JAD) and Participatory Design (PD).  As computer systems become more complex, business emphasize more on quality, productivity, traditional waterflow lifecycle methodologies can not satisfy these trends. Joint Application Development (JAD) and Participatory Design (PD) methods were proposed in order to address the problem. These two methods both emphasize greater user involvement and user participation in the development of systems. JAD was originally adopted in North America, while PD in Scandinavia. There are many similarities between JAD and PD. However, JAD and PD have different goals, JAD emphasizes on the functional requirements of the system, PD emphasizes more on social aspects of the system.
 
Paper:Participatory Design: Taking People Seriously The London School of Economics and Political Sciences 

This paper attempts to examine the purpose of  Participatory Design and its constraints.   Historically, democratic values have only been partially considered in the systems design process, the main focus has been on technical and economic factors. However, this emphasis has been shifted by research on the involvement of users in the design of Information Systems (IS), a field of literature known as Participatory Design (PD).
 
Contextural Design
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Contextual Design:Using Customer Work Models to Drive Sysbem Design InContext Enterprises, Inc.

This web page describes the approach to Contextual Design developed by InContetx Enterprises, Inc.  Contextual Design introduces a customer-centered approach to business by bringing in customer data gathered in the field and using it to drive the definition of a product or process, while supporting the needs of teams and their organizations. Contextual Design is a state-of-the-art approach to designing products directly from an understanding of how the customer works.
 
Performance Centered Design (PCD)
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What is Performance-Centered Design The Royal Institute of Technology

This web page describes the approach to Performance Centered Design developed by The Royal Institute of Technology. Performance Centered Design (PCD) infuses tools with knowledge, structures tasks, and enables performers to achieve the required level of performance as quickly as possible - at the very most, within a day -- with minimum support from other people. Software that is designed around performance is intuitive to its users and enables them to perform their normal work with obvious gains in speed and efficiency without ever attending training classes or looking things up in books. It reflects their own conceptualization of their work and incorporates their language, idioms, metaphors, and understanding of how to perform tasks.
 
The Scenario-Based Engineering Process (SEP)
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The Scenario-based Engineering Process (SEP)  4R Group, Inc

This web page describes the The Scenario-based Engineering Process (SEP) user-centered methodology developed by 4R Group, Inc.  SEP is an iterative, user-centered methodology that enables organizations to address today's business needs, while constructing a vision and a bridge to tomorrow's business mission, competencies, and goals. The Scenario-based Engineering Process (SEP) uses scenarios as the common thread to analyze, develop, and test architectures and components. SEP is used to help organizations envision and define improved plans and strategies, processes, and applications. SEP is also applied when there is a need to acquire knowledge about work processes, tasks, knowledge use, and performance needs of a workforce.
 
Discount Usability Engineering 
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Paper: Guerrilla HCI: Using Discount Usability Engineering to Penetrate the Intimidation Barrier  Nielsen Norman Group, Inc

This web page describes the discount usability engineering method developed by Jakob Nielsen.  Usability specialists will often propose using the best possible methodology. Indeed, this is what they have been trained to do in most universities. Unfortunately, it seems that "le mieux est l'ennemi du bien" (the best is the enemy of the good) to the extent that insisting on using only the best methods may result in having no methods used at all. Therefore, focus on achieving "the good" with respect to having some usability engineering work performed, even though the methods needed to achieve this result are definitely not "the best" method and will not give perfect results. The "discount usability engineering" method is based on the use of the following three techniques: Scenarios, Simplified thinking aloud and Heuristic evaluation. Additionally, the basic principle of early focus on users should of course be followed. It can be achieved in various ways, including simple visits to customer locations.
 
Usability Methods
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A Collection of User Oriented Methods The Royal Institute of Technology

This web site contains descriptions of different user oriented methods. The purpose of this web-site is to encourage the usage of user oriented methods in both industry and research projects. We also offer a place for discussing these methods, namely the Usor mailing-list.
 
The Usability Methods Toolbox San Jose State University

This is a web page created by James Hom, a master student at San Jose State University. It is a nice survey of many usability methods. This page compiles information about almost all of the methods and techniques used in usability evaluation. The information are classified into three categories: Inquiry, Inspection, Testing, and related techniques.
 
Credits 
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This page was last modified on 11/02/1998.